“If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants”
Isaac Newton was born in the small village Vulstorp, about 200 kilometers north of London. The boy was born premature and frail. Later, Newton himself said: “According to his mother, I was born so small that I could buy back in the large beer mug”. No one expected him to survive. Newton, however, lived to a ripe old age. He very rarely sick, kept intact teeth and read without glasses.
The area in which he was born and spent his childhood next great scientist, belongs to the most healthy and beautiful in England. A small two-storey house has been preserved to our days, I was in a cozy valley, where the keys are hitting the net. A small slope of the house led to the river bits. It offers picturesque views of the garden, where Newton liked to sit. Perhaps, in this garden of the famous apple fell, “supporting” Newton’s law of universal gravitation.
When Newton was twelve years old, he was sent to a public school in Grantham. He settled it at the home of an apothecary Clark. Communication with the pharmacist first awakened in him desire to chemical experiments. At the same school subjects he does not give. In recognition of Newton, he was extremely careless and lazy and was considered in the class of the last student.
But one event made him change attitudes to learning. A classmate, who studied much better than Newton and surpasses it physically beat him up. Proud Newton, who had no opportunity to repay the offender in the same coin, decided to beat him in his studies. The boy began to intensively engaged and soon became the first student in the class.
Special envy classmates called toys that Newton did. He built a miniature windmill is admired not only children but also adults. With a good wind mill could even really grind a handful of grain. In calm weather, the mill moved live “miller” – his role fulfilled mouse wheeled wheels. To make the mouse climb the wheel, the boy hung over the wheel bag of grain. At fourteen, he fashioned a water clock, and a kind of scooter. The watches were so precise that they enjoyed all the family Clark. And in the evening sky Grantham silently slid lanterns illuminated kites built and launched by Newton.
In school, Newton found no special mathematical talents (such as Pascal). However, his ability was much higher than average.
By “grentemskomu period”, most likely, the only true romantic enthusiasm for Newton. In the house of Clark, he met and became friends with the ward pharmacist Miss Storey. Friendship grew into love, and Newton Storey intended to marry. Fate decreed otherwise.
Newton’s mother was widowed a second time when his son was fifteen years old. She called Isaac on the family farm, which has tried to teach him to farm. If she could do it, science may have lost one of the greatest scientists. Fortunately, the young schoolboy uncle was surprised to find that his nephew enthusiastically engaged in mathematics and problem solving spends all his free time. Struck by this uncle persuaded his sister not to oppose the request of the youth to continue their education. Newton returned to school, and at the end it went to Cambridge. There he enrolled at Trinity College – one of the best schools of the time.
Unfortunately, this study at Cambridge Newton destroyed the marital plans: according to the old, still going by the tradition of the Middle Ages, college students ought to remain bachelors. Wedding Newton and Miss Storey was not destined to take place.
University of Trinity College was a replica of the then British society. In addition to the faculties and courses there were class and caste barriers, through which the students could not overstep. There were many of these invisible barriers, and future great scientist was at the lowest of the existing stages. They do not pay for their studies, but their duties include maintenance of rich students. And perhaps later other of the rich boast in their circle so that they cleaned the boots great Newton himself!
Science baggage boys, handed down to them from grentemskoy public schools, was quite limited. But his mind had long been accustomed to serious and independent thinking. Due to this he was in the first years of study at Trinity College surpassed most of its peers. Of course, much of the credit here belongs to the teacher Newton, a famous mathematician Isaac Barrow.
Three years after Newton revenues already in the last year. A year later, he – Bachelor and Professor Barrow, in his speech to the students called him “my husband nice and attentive.”
In 1664 – 1667 years in England was raging plague. The young scientist was forced to leave the plague ravaged London. He settled in his native Vulstorpe. Here he spent a total of about two years, from August 1665 on March 25, 1666 and June 22, 1666 on March 25, 1667
In Vulstorpe he was able to focus on those ideas that emerged initially during his studies, and who now turned into a revolutionary discovery. It is here and it is in the “plague years” Newton created infinitesimal analysis (method of fluxions, as he called it), and differential and integral calculus by Leibniz is now accepted terminology. In Vulstorpe he first came to the idea of universal gravitation law, laid the foundations of modern theory of light, discovered the formula of the binomial expansion of the n-th degree (binomial theorem). This period in the great English scientist’s life can be compared to the same period of Bern Albert Einstein – or, if you will, with boldins the great Russian poet Alexander Pushkin. Newton himself wrote about the “plague years”: “In those days I was in the prime of his inventive powers, and Mathematics and Philosophy since then I have never been captured so much as then.”
However, most of the discoveries made by him, humanity has learned much later. Only in 1736, after Newton’s death was published his work “method of fluxions and infinite series, with its application to the geometry of curves.”
Maybe that’s reluctance prematurely (as he thought) to acquaint the public with the fundamental discoveries, Newton deprived of the deserved glory, which certainly would have accompanied him during his return to the university.
But he again began to lead a normal life of a university employee, gradually climbing the ladder of the hierarchy that existed in the scientific world. For experiments in optics and construction of the telescope, he was elected Fellow of the Royal Society. He opens one of the other laws of physics – and it helps even unpublished method of fluxions.
The fundamental discoveries usually come several scholars simultaneously. It happened with the discoveries made by Newton. By the opening of the law of universal gravitation was close Robert Hooke. Regardless of Newton’s differential and integral calculus opened a German mathematician Leibniz. Controversy ensued about the priority for many years overshadowed the life of the great scientist. He hardened, lost faith in the people and once wrote: “I am convinced that either should not report anything new, or have to spend all their forces to the defense of his discoveries …” And really when Newton published little life. As already noted, many of the basic mathematical writings were published after Newton’s death.
In general, the long life of Newton has developed successfully, success followed success. He was twice elected member of parliament. However, in that position, Newton did not do anything remarkable. Then he was appointed director of the Mint. Queen Anne produces once ignorant of Isaac Newton in a knighthood. Since then, his name was added to the prefix “Sir”. Around the same time overlook his work “Optics”, “Discourse on the quadrature of the circle”, “Start”, and others.
By the end of his life, Newton became a very rich man, but remained generous, helping many students money.
All his life he remained an extremely modest man. About his findings, he said: “I do not know what I may seem to the world, but to myself I seem to have only a boy playing on the seashore, to entertain the fact that from time to time finds the stone more flamboyant than usual, or red sink in while the great ocean of truth unexplored stretches in front of me. ”
About three weeks before his death, Newton began to feel bouts of nephrolithiasis. His suffering he endured patiently, without complaining, even though the pain was very strong.
March 20, 1727, he was gone. Six Peers of England carried the coffin on their shoulders scientist to Westminster Abbey in London, where he buried the greatest men of England. At the grave delivered a magnificent marble monument with carved on it a long Latin inscription, ends with the words: “… decoration of the human race,” and on his monument in Cambridge sculptor carved the words of Lucretius: “Mind it surpassed the human race.”